Tang Class (Fast Attack Diesel Submarine)
The Tang was the first submarine designed for underwater performance rather than surfaced speed and handling. Key features included streamlining the outer hull, replacing the conning tower with a sail, installing new propellers designed for submerged operations, installing more air conditioning and a snorkel mast, and doubling the battery capacity.
The German Type XXI diesel submarine revolutionized submarine design with its introduction in 1945. Fortunately, the war was nearing its end and very few of these boats were able to operate against the Allies. Following the war, the US analyzed the captured U-2513 and U-3008 while the Soviet Union took fifteen of these submarines for research. While American fleet submarines could range 30 miles submerged at 3 knots, the German Type XXI submarines could maintain 6 knots for 40 hours, ranging 240 miles and it could do so more quietly than the American submarines and could operate at 650 feet. Equipped with a snorkel, they could range 10,000 miles at 12 knots.
A formal review of US submarine experience during World War II by Commodore Merrill Comstock led to a new submarine design that began in February 1946. It would include a new streamlined mast, retractable gear, and had no deck guns (which increased resistance). A circular sectional hull was utilized which was 100-feet shorter than the Tench class and a new space-saving engine was developed; the GM 16-338 "pancake" engines which could generate 1100hp. The space saved eliminated the need for one entire engine room. Additional aft torpedo stowage was eliminated and the ability to fire the Mk27 and planned Mk37 torpedoes was added. Short aft torpedo tubes were included at the request of submarine officers for use as countermeasures weapons.
By 1948, the US Navy's submarine force saw the development of a new hybrid submarine, the DFAS Diesel Fast Attack Submarines. The class was built at a length of 268 feet and a beam of 25 feet. With 2850 shaft horsepower on each of two shafts, the boat could snorkel 10,000 nautical miles at 10 knots. Underwater endurance was 43 hours at 3 knots or top speed of 17.5 knots for one hour. Diving depth was over 700 feet. These carried the WQC-2 surface search and BQA-8 navigation radars, BQG-4 active/passive sonar, and PUFFS passive sonar.
In October 1946, the design was finalized and two boats were ordered; Tang (SS-563) and Trigger (SS-564). In FY1947 Wahoo (SS-565) and Trout (SS-566) were added, and in FY1948 the final two; Gudgeon (SS-567) and Harder (SS-568). Construction began 1949-50 and Tang (SS-563) commissioned in 1951, the remainder in 1952.
On October 25, 1951, the second USS Tang (SS 563) was commissioned and was the first of the modern fast attack submarines and surrogate parent of the U.S. Navy's nuclear power submarine force. From its initial planning, the new Tang introduced the fast attack concept to the submarine community with its streamlined hull, integrated snorkel system, and increased speed and depth. The SS-563's design incorporated the total submerged operation concept from the U.S. Navy's World War II submarine experience as well as the submarine experience of America's enemies.
This submarine provided shipbuilders with the pattern for the first eight U.S. nuclear powered submarines of the Nautilus, Seawolf, and Skate class. Tang outlasted four of those submarines before being decommissioned. Tang quickly established itself as a submarine capable of meeting operational commitments while remaining flexible.
Gudgeon (Diesel Fast Attack) Submarine: Ordered Fiscal Year 1948 keel laid down, 20 May 1950 at Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, ME; Launched, 11 June 1952; Commissioned USS Gudgeon (SS-567) on 21 November 1952.
Initially based at Pearl Harbor, she operated in Pacific waters with regular deployments to the Far East as a unit of the U. S. Seventh Fleet. Between 8 July 1957 and 21 February 1958, Gudgeon made a 25,000 cruise from Pearl Harbor to Pearl Harbor - the first United States submarine to circumnavigate the globe. On 9 December 1963, she entered Mare Island Naval Shipyard at Vallejo, CA to have her hull extended between 15 - 18 feet to accommodate the Passive Underwater Fire-Control Feasibility System (PUFFS).
Re-Designated as an Auxiliary Research Submarine (AGSS-567) on 1 April 1979 and re-designated later as an Guided Missile Auxiliary Submarine (SSAG-567) on 5 November 1979.
By the end, Tang measured more than 292 feet in length and displaced more than 2,000 tons, making it 600 tons heavier and more than 22 feet longer than the boat that slid into the New Hampshire waters in 1951.
In 1972, Tang 's crew found their boat and themselves in a new homeport San Diego, and with a new mission: antisubmarine warfare (ASW) research and training. The new job brought with it a new designation "AGSS" for the 563. Under a heavy operational tempo, Tang dedicated itself to ASW training and several special CNO research and development projects for the next six years. But in 1978, Tang shifted homeports once again. This time it went to New London, Conn., where the 563 was redesignated SS" and became the only operational diesel submarine in the Atlantic Fleet and was once again heavily used in ASW training.
The slogan "Diesel Boats Forever" seems dated now, but the diehard diesel submariners won't let it die. Nevertheless, the era of diesel-electric submarines has drawn to a close. Only their contributions in war and peace and the men who served on them are their legacy as the nuclear-powered submarine has emerged as the future of the U.S. Navy's submarine force.
Trigger (SS-564) and Harder (SS-568) were decommissioned in 1973 and transferred to Italy. The remainder were withdrawn from service 1978-83. Gudgeon (SS-567) was sold to Turkey in 1987.
Displacement: Surfaced: 2,100 t., Submerged: 2,700 t.
Beam: 27' 3"
Surfaced 20 kt,
Submerged 18 kt
Six 21" torpedo tubes forward,
Two-19” torpedo tubes aft, for Mk 37 torpedoes, eight MK-49/57 mines
(3) Fairbanks-Morse Type 3 diesel engines, HP 4500,
(2) Electric motors, HP 5600, 2 shafts/propellers.